Facial Fracture Management Handbook. The term LeFort fractures is applied to transverse fractures of the midface. Rene' LeFort described three transverse weak lines through the midfacial skeleton as a result of his cadaver studies in Images by RosarioVanTulpe - Own work. Le Fort I level fractures are essentially a separation of the hard palate from the upper maxilla due to a transverse fracture running through the maxilla and pterygoid plates at a level just above the floor of the nose. LeFort II fractures transect the nasal bones, medial-anterior orbital walls, orbital floor, inferior orbital rims and finally transversely fracture the posterior maxilla and pterygoid plates. LeFort III fractures result in craniofacial disjunction.
Analysis of the fractured face requires a knowledge of not only normal . In these injuries, severe comminution of the face is present, and underlying skull injury. Facial fractures are fractures (broken bones) of the face and mouth. They commonly include fractures of the nose (nasal), cheekbones (zygoma), surrounds to the eyes (orbit) and upper (maxilla) and lower (mandible) jaws. What causes facial fractures?.
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Zygomaticomaxillary complex ZMC fractures are a group of fractures that can significantly alter the structure, function, and appearance of the midface, including the globe. Like other facial fractures, the optimal management of operative ZMC fractures requires anatomic reduction of all fractures followed by rigid internal fixation.
The bones of the skull and face collectively make up the most complex area of skeletal real estate in the body. Analysis of the fractured face requires a knowledge of not only normal anatomy, but also of common fracture patterns in the face. Although they represent serious injuries, the workup and treatment of facial fractures is often properly delayed until more pressing problems have been addressed, such as the establishment of an adequate airway, hemodynamic stabilization, and the evaluation and treatment of other more serious injuries of the head, chest and skeleton. Once these problems have been managed, it is time to work up facial fractures. At our institution, high resolution CT is currently the imaging procedure of choice for most facial fractures. The complex anatomy and fractures of the facial bones are shown extremely well by CT, and soft tissue complications can be evaluated to a far greater degree with CT.